Summary of the Systematic Review

Article Citation

A Quantitative Summary of The Listening Program (TLP) Efficacy Studies: What Areas Were Found to Improve by TLP Intervention?

Vargas, S., & Lucker, J. R. (2016).
Occupational Therapy International, 23(2), 206-217.
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Article Quality Ratings

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Indicators of Review Quality

  • Yes The review states a clearly focused question/aim.
  • Yes Criteria for inclusion of studies are provided.
  • No Search strategy described in sufficient detail for replication.
  • No Included studies are assessed for study quality.
  • N/A Quality assessments are reproducible.
  • Yes Characteristics of the included studies are provided.

Quality Rating Notes

Article Details


This systematic review investigates the impact of a music-based auditory stimulation program, The Listening Program (TLP) by Advanced Brain Technologies (ABT), to improve functional cognitive-communication, psychological, and motor outcomes in individuals.

Questions/Aims Addressed

  1. "What is the average magnitude effect of TLP intervention?
  2. In which functional areas [executive functioning, communication, auditory processing, social and emotional regulation, stress reduction, motor coordination, and creativity] is the largest effect observed following TLP intervention?
  3. What factors may have influenced the magnitude of the TLP intervention effect?
  4. What does the present analysis reveal regarding the needs for future research?" (p. 207).


Individuals (not further specified)


The Listening Program

Number of Studies Included


Years Included

Not stated

Conclusions from This Systematic Review

What are Conclusions?

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Only one study examined the effects of The Listening Program on children with auditory processing disorders and reported improved auditory skills (e.g., auditory sensitivity and auditory processing) and performance in some academic areas. The authors noted that the analysis was based "on the specific measures of the SCAN [Test for Auditory Processing Disorders in Children] and did not look at the specific profile of [auditory processing disorders] APD identified for each subject" (p. 212).

Keywords: Auditory Treatments (i.e. Manipulation of the Acoustic Signal)

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Findings demonstrated The Listening Program to have a small effect size of 0.41 in language and educational areas (e.g., auditory-verbal memory, oral and written language skills, language comprehension). This small effect size indicated some improvement was observed, but authors were only able to hypothesize the reason why The Listening Program intervention led to that improvement.

Keywords: Auditory Processing Disorders, Learning Disability, Sensory-Based Interventions (i.e. SIT/AIT)

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